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What does “Classroom Management” actually mean?
Classroom management is the most important factor affecting student learning.
It is the effective discipline in the classroom that provides a safe, comfortable learning environment, motivates your students, build their self-esteem and encourage them to be imaginative and creative in daily lessons.
It is having control of the class by organizing students and resources so that teaching and learning can occur effectively.
Reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom:
Students misbehave for several reasons:
Principles of classroom management:
Six General Tips to Manage a Class:
1. Over plan your lessons:
If you don’t plan, the student will plan for you.
The more you plan, the more effective the lesson and delivery will be and the less problems with discipline will occur.
2. Arrange the seating:
3. Look at the students:
4. Use your hands to encourage and direct students:
5. Vary your voice:
6. Gain attention:
1- Objective Test vs. Subjective Test:
Objective test is independent of the person marking that test. There is usually a key of answers that leaves no room for subjectivity in grading (e.g. M.C tests or false-true tests) but in Subjective test, the score depends on the marker. It usually happens that different markers give different scores. The gap between the markers may be sometimes very wide (e.g. in free writing).
2- Speed Test vs. Achievement Test:
The speed test aims at measuring the speed of performance. It is made a little longer than the time given. (e.g. Two hundred items on grammar to be answered in an hour) but achievement test aims at measuring students achievement. The given time is made to be adequate; emphasis here is on measuring achievement not speed.
3- Public Test vs. Local Test:
The public test is given on a country-wide scale and prepared by a central authority. It is usually announced and relatively long. It is normally given at the end of a school cycle but the local test is locally prepared and given at the same school level by the class teacher.
4- Standard Test vs. Normal Test:
The standard test is carefully designed and undergoes long experimentation and research. Each score has a special interpretation that indicates where a certain scorer stands among a statistical population of similar individuals but the normal test is not standardized. The majority of tests, of course, belong to this normal category.
5- Written Test vs. Oral Test:
The answers for written test are to be given in a written form but the answers for oral test are to be given orally.
6- Announced Test vs. Drop Test:
The teacher assigns the test material and fixes a certain date in advance for the announced test but the drop test is given without previous announcement. It is usually a short one and it aims at keeping students on the alert.
7- Classroom Test vs. Home Test:
The test questions of the classroom test are given and answered in class but the home test is given in class but answered at home .
8- Closed-Book Test vs. Open-Book Test:
Textbook are closed while students are taking the closed-book test but students are allowed to use their books while answering the questions of the open-book test.
Classroom management is mainly based on attracting and keeping your students’ attention. If you succeed to do that, you will be able to achieve your learning objectives easily. Here are some tips to attract your students’ attention
It is a challenging task for teachers to write test questions, especially when a test is being used to measure certain learning outcomes. Take into account the following guidelines before you begin writing test questions.
True/False questions include high probability of guessing the correct response so it is better to avoid them and find a more substantial way to ask the questions. If you think of using this kind of questions, you must not include them any of the qualifying words such as “sometimes” or “always” because these words provide a clue to the correct answer. True/False questions are best used for pre-tests to help identify what the learner doesn’t know.
Multiple choice questions or MCQs are less subject to guessing. In addition, they can be used to assess higher-level thinking. The stems and solutions or alternatives must be constructed effectively by:
Essay questions are and should be used mainly to measure higher-level thinking skills such as analyzing, synthesizing and making connections. In these questions, clear guidelines should be provided about the topic, grading or marking so that students can be well aware of how to write the essay. Students should be provided with a lot of practice on writing several short essays rather than on a long one to allow them to write on a variety of topics.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is based on the main goal of involving students in meaningful communication using the target language. There are many activity types that can be used in the classroom to achieve that goal. The following are the main ones of them.
In these activities students should use the language in real-life communicative situations where real information is exchanged and authentic language is used. In addition, the language used is not predictable.
E.g. when asking about directions and how to get to certain places; the nearest bus stop, café or train station.
These activities achieve the goal of people’s communication which is getting the information they don’t possess. Students are encouraged in the classroom to do this kind of activities to communicate meaningfully to obtain information.
E.g. divide students into pairs to practise role-playing. Each student has information that the other doesn’t know. One student asks for information on train departures, prices, the time, … etc.
In these tasks the focus is on using the language resources to complete a task.
In these activities students are required to use the language resources to collect information.
In these activities students share their values, opinions and beliefs such as listing the most important qualities of a good teacher or the best friend.
In these activities students take information from one form and represent it in a different form. E.g. reading information about a subject and represent it in a graph or a map.
In these activities students derive or infer information from given information.
E.g. deriving information from the classroom timetable.
Effective mentoring programme should aim at the following:
Key stones in any mentoring programme: